How to ensure energy efficiency of residential buildings in a pandemic

May 18, 2020
The coronavirus pandemic, the forced shutdown of most industrial enterprises, and, as a result, the economic downturn, exposed in Uzbekistan many problems associated with, among other things, irrational energy consumption. President Shavkat Mirziyoyev spoke about the need to take urgent measures to optimize energy consumption, use energy-saving technologies in the design and construction of multi-story buildings, improve energy efficiency of social facilities, at a meeting on May 4.
200 liter solar water heaters
Today in the republic 40% of the generated electricity is used for heating and lighting. For heating 1 square. square meters in Uzbekistan, on average, 400 kWh of electricity is used, while in developed countries - 170 kWh.

From 2005 to 2015, the residential and public buildings sector accounted for 34% of primary energy consumption. This amounts to about 16.4 million tons of oil equivalent (so-called). The potential for energy savings in the housing sector is 9-10 million toe, in other words, it is possible to reduce consumption by about 20%.

In this regard, the UNDP / Global Environment Facility and Ministry of Construction project “Assistance in the development of construction of energy-efficient rural housing in Uzbekistan”, which has been implemented since 2017, deserves attention. As a result of the project, a reduction in household energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is expected.

In the framework of the project “Assistance in the development of the construction of energy-efficient rural housing in Uzbekistan”, 800 three-room energy-efficient houses with low energy consumption were built in Samarkand, Surkhandarya, Ferghana, Khorezm and Bukhara regions. In each such house, photovoltaic stations (FES) with a capacity of 300 watts are installed and operate for lighting needs. Ten of these houses have 200 liter solar water heaters.

Reducing energy consumption in these houses is also achieved through the use of high-quality special building materials, insulation of building envelopes, window sealing, automatic temperature control of premises, etc.
However, this level of energy consumption of the building lasts from 3 to 5 years and then begins to grow. An energy survey is needed to determine the reasons for this reduction in energy efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct an energy audit, on average, once every four years.

The project “Assistance in the development of the construction of energy-efficient rural housing in Uzbekistan” provides for an energy audit of the constructed standard houses in 2020-2021.

During an energy audit, specialists using special equipment examine the energy supply, distribution and consumption systems of buildings and structures. Based on the data obtained, experts will evaluate the current level of energy consumption and energy efficiency, find out the possibilities of saving costs on consumed fuel and energy resources, and develop technical, organizational and economic measures to reduce the cost of energy resources and other means.

An energy audit will reveal the actual annual consumption of heat and electricity. It will also help determine the level of corresponding greenhouse gas emissions and the costs of residents to pay for their energy consumption. The data obtained will help to compare these buildings with typical rural houses built in the framework of the state program in 2018 in similar climatic conditions.

According to the representative of the energy auditor company, field events will take about 8-10 hours in each of the studied houses and will be carried out with the direct participation of homeowners.

Instrumental surveys will be carried out using modern measuring equipment to determine the actual indicators of energy consumption, thermal performance of buildings. In this case, metering devices available locally will also be used. A thermal imaging survey of the building envelope, the main electrical components and the main equipment of the heating systems will be carried out.

In the framework of the UNDP / Global Environment Facility and Ministry of Construction project “Assistance in the development of the construction of energy-efficient rural housing in Uzbekistan”, 800 energy-efficient houses were built: 176 houses in the Samarkand region, 185 houses in the Surkhandarya, 206 houses in the Ferghana, 112 houses in the Khorezm and 121 houses in Bukhara regions. Of these, energy audits will cover 60 houses in five pilot areas, as well as ordinary model houses built as part of the State Program in 2018. This approach will allow you to compare energy-efficient houses with ordinary ones and analyze the efficiency of using energy-efficient and low-carbon technologies to reduce heat and electricity consumption energy in rural houses.

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the projected recession in the global economy, the government of Uzbekistan is focused on the intensive development of the economy, which will require the introduction of new energy capacities, the efficient use of available resources both in industrial facilities and in the residential sector.

The widespread introduction of energy audits and the use of renewable energy sources are one of the significant reserves that have not yet been fully utilized, which in the future will serve to solve the problem of shortages of natural gas and oil, and, according to experts, can save consumers energy costs by half.